Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design

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Guillermo Sánchez Sotés

In summary, inspired city planning working to a well-defined strategy with a regard for human values can avoid the chaos created by the uncontrolled growth of cities during rapid industrialisation. The designs for future cities must be flexible, responding to evolving technologies and cultural changes.

With rapid global urbanisation the challenges are immense; but to learn what works new cities must be built to new designs. We shall need to accept that success will be accompanied by failure, from which we shall, and must, learn. Innovative visions are needed in emerging cities to reduce the impact on the environment while creating places that increase social cohesion, or accelerating human interaction in education, health and employment to improve the quality of life for an ever greater percentage of our world population.

The technological advancements should be fully utilized to realize these visions and goals. For instance, temperature, pollution, water systems, waste management systems, radiation, traffic, air pollution and other components can be monitored through wireless sensor networks for achieving the greatest efficiency [ 13 ]. These systems can help detect leaks and problem areas quickly, potentially saving electricity and other precious resources.

Urban farming is a simple change, since dirt beds can be put nearly anywhere and grow food locally [ 13 ]. Organizing community carpools and encouraging people to recycle waste and use reusable bags for shopping can make huge impacts as well. Cities can become also more sustainable and attractive by adding open space. Hiking trails, activity centres, and parks can draw people into the city and reduce waste. Cities are vital to the future global economy.

However, cities are struggling with climate change, changes in population and demographics, congestion and healthcare, and pressure on key resources [ 17 , 18 ]. Recent research has been focused on the development of a data platform for power, heat and cooling usage in cities and individual usage patterns in domestic, commercial and industrial buildings [ 20 , 21 ]. There is a lack of information in the rapidly changing energy market.

Solutions are required to better handling of cost, supply and demand of energy in cities and towns. With macro-level energy data, cities can invest in new innovations, provide more focused geographic support to areas where energy supply is lacking, and gain better decision-making evidence on issues such as targeted building retrofitting and fuel poverty [ 21 ].

Responding to the rapid urban development and challenges, future cities have become a pressing issue due to the impacts of global warming problems. This inevitably requires identifying prioritizing and structuring new design and managerial tools to improve their environmental, urban and fiscal sustainability.

Emerging cities should also develop local and national policies to retain highly qualified individuals. Currently in developing world, the proportion of cities making effort to retain talented and visionary individuals is alarmingly low. Asia could count as an exception where half of the cities are putting effort to retain talent. In China, Chongqing has developed an ambitious training programme to support the transition of rural migrants from manual-based to skill-based types of work; by , nearly one-third of migrants had benefited from the scheme [ 22 ].

Dubai is also promoting education especially in the fields of engineering and information technologies [ 23 ]. However, low infrastructure development rate and unbalanced distribution of benefits of growth across all the population are signalling threat for these regions. Quality of life is rapidly emerging as a major asset in any efforts to attract and retain creative minds and businesses. It is not surprising that Toronto, San Francisco or Stockholm are regularly ranked among the top performing cities in the world, since they are found as performing particularly well in a wide range of both economic and quality of life indicators including crime, green areas, air quality and life satisfaction.

Except more developed nations, Singapore, with a similar balance of quality of life attributes, also ranks among the top world cities and the highest among developing countries [ 6 ]. Inspiring from the above given successful examples, each city should develop its own strategic future vision for realizing the basic concepts, with the aim of maximizing an integrated total of environmental, social and economic values.

When setting out the future vision, both a backcasting approach of looking back from a desirable future to the present and a forecasting approach of looking forward from the present to the future are essential to enhance feasibility. Moreover, it is important to set the vision in a way that fully embodies each city's diverse and unique features that arise from its natural and social characteristics.

Each city is required to tackle the challenges of the environment and aging society, and is further encouraged to take on additional challenges in areas that can enhance their originality and comparative advantages in cooperation with other cities in the same nation and abroad. It will be important to gather worldwide wisdom by absorbing information on other cites' successes from all over the world, as this will help integrate a variety of efforts in different fields and realize synergistic effects. By accumulating successes, cities are expected to break away from subsidies and acquire self-financing independence, establishing financially and socially autonomous models [ 6 ].

Yet the domestic sector will increasingly become the leading energy sector as more people around the world aspire to higher living standards, which will drive the demand for air conditioning and electric power. Kylili and Fokaides define ZEBs as buildings that have zero carbon emissions on an annual basis [ 24 ]. Adapted from [ 24 ]. Various designs for future cities have been mooted, some more adventurous than others. Some are actually being built. All aspire to being carbon neutral and sustainable, exploiting the latest technologies for construction, renewable energy, recycling and transportation.

Recently the British Government has announced plans for new garden cities in the UK which emphasised the development of new communities adapted to local needs [ 25 ]. Garden cities built along these lines will largely exploit existing technologies, an approach already adopted elsewhere. To achieve zero carbon emissions, ZCB adopts an integrated design where the ZCB building and its surrounding woodland must be seen as a single entity. It prospers the diversity, expresses the dynamism and creativity of university life with creating a fascinating turban area.

While the tower provides multifunctional usage and is visually attractive, its unique geometry covers less land space than its contenders.

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The building is a showcase of future high rise construction. Future cities could evolve by progressively adding more buildings following the same principles, each designed for its intended function, residential, offices etc. The buildings have a number of measures for ecological sustainability using a combination of wind, geothermal and solar energy. The original biodiversity of the local area has been maintained and especial attention has been applied to rainwater collection and sewage treatment.

Hammarby is meant to provide 10, apartments for 25 inhabitants and occupies hectares of land, close to the city centre. As with the Malmo development, energy, waste and water systems have been designed for sustainability. The project is a conspicuous example of urban development as it addresses many challenges such as combining workspace with housing, matching with dense urban population, achieving zero carbon standards and increasing comfort level [ 29 ]. Like the Swedish examples, its development is a response to the decline in highly polluting heavy industry, which contaminated the local, land, sea and air in the s.

The target is to reverse this environmental damage by creating a sustainable community through a partnership of the government, commercial organisations and citizens. A key aspect is local recycling of discarded items from bottles to bicycles. Furthermore, all Eco-Town companies must allow their facilities to be inspected by citizens in order to eliminate public distrust and anxiety concerning potential pollution. The developments described above are based essentially on established technologies following principles that can be applied readily elsewhere to achieve urban sustainability in the near future.

They are targeted at relatively modest sized communities typically adjacent or within existing conurbations. In parallel with these projects, far more ambitious, schemes have been initiated that are creating completely new sustainable cities on virgin ground, especially in states with strong central, governments and with considerable national wealth earned from the sale of fossil fuels.

But, it is intended to be more than just a demonstration of the practicality of using renewable energy technologies. Masdar City will host a vibrant, innovative, community of academics, researchers, start-up companies and financiers — all focused on developing renewable energy and sustainability technologies. Another interesting project, Silk City in Kuwait, will be completed in and will include 30 communities grouped into four main districts; Finance city, Leisure city, Ecological City and the Educational - Cultural city. Silk City will become a new urban centre accommodating , residents in over thousand residential units.

King Abdullah Economic City is another representative of the future city concept aiming to have a positive impact on the socio-economic development of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [ 34 ].

The first stage of the city was finished in and it will be fully completed in In response to its considerable environmental problems, a result of its recent industrial growth and need to meet the aspirations of its increasingly wealthy population, China has initiated the construction of many cities based on sustainable designs. Although its development has not been without problems [ 38 ] it does appear to be growing at a viable pace [ 39 ].

The stated intention is to move one hundred million people into new cities in the next decade, especially in the western part of the country. Amenities provided in the city will include; cultural centres and university campuses [ 40 ]. A Formula 1 circuit will also be included. All buildings will be capable of withstanding magnitude 9. While the new cities described above are ambitious they are based on existing or emerging technology and, in principle at least, can be completed within the next decade, designs for far more futuristic cities have also been mooted, siting them underground [ 41 — 43 ], underwater [ 44 ], floating on the sea [ 45 , 46 ] or even in the sky [ 47 , 48 ].

Arguably the development of the underground city has already started. In London, where real estate is very expensive, wealthy property owners are digging downwards to expand their living space thus avoiding planning regulations. Maybe in localities such as London, where the underlying clay is conducive to excavation, a present day city can evolve into a future city by digging downwards rather growing upwards? Aquaculture would be practised in the surrounding sea to produce food sustainably and fresh water would be obtained by desalination.

The city integrates a range of renewable energies solar, thermal, photovoltaic and wind. Intriguingly, since these floating cities float near a coast or travel around the world following the ocean currents, they would avoid the problems of sea level rise resulting from climate change [ 53 , 54 ].

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The Venus Project, proposed by US inventor, Jacque Fresco, is another circular city comprising a central dome containing the cybernetic systems that maintain core automated city functions [ 55 , 56 ]. Fresco goes way beyond developing a sustainable city. He wishes to create an utopian, technological civilisation without money that avoids the ills of all previous forms of economic and political systems…capitalism, government, fascism, communism, socialism and democracy.

Fresco considers that by creating the ideal environment for humans it will naturally eliminating violence, greed, and the inequalities that presently afflict us. His philosophy seems to be in a tradition that can be traced back to Plato and Thomas More. The ideas espoused are beguiling, but are they achievable? Could they survive in a world where the pursuit of power and wealth is the prime objective of some individuals, whether ostensibly justified by nationalism, religious belief, or political creed?

Indeed, to fully buy into the Venus Project requires a strong belief in its philosophy. Despite the ambitious, indeed grandiose, designs of future cities requiring considerable planning, rapid urban renewal may become vital in response to natural disasters notably earthquakes and hurricanes.

While nobody would wish such misfortunate on any city with the human tragedies engendered, the opportunity presented to rebuild a devastated city to both improve its sustainability and to reduce the risk of future disaster cannot be overlooked, not least as an honour to those who have suffered. Two examples are the Wenchuan and Qingchuan districts of Sichuan Province, severely damaged by the earthquake, which are now in the reconstruction process. These areas suffered because buildings were not earthquake resistant. Reconstruction has been difficult and a large number of temporary shelters that are neither durable nor thermally comfortable have been built in an attempt to meet the urgent needs of those affected.

A research team led by Prof. The building is safe and durable, and the cost of construction is low. It also looks attractive and features good thermal performance and a high energy-saving capacity. Maybe inspired, elegant, but eminently practical designs to rebuild shattered communities rapidly and sustainably will be more important and helpful to humanity than some of the grandiose schemes presently on drawing boards?

Of course, new cities, based on existing modern technology, are already being designed and built. China is also moving rapidly towards implementing a low carbon economy and have recently selected 5 provinces and 8 cities for low carbon demonstration [ 58 , 59 ]. Basically with the 3D printing, robotic arms with three axis freedom of movement can construct the building, based on the architectural design, which is coded into the controller of the 3D printer.

A return to timber as a major building material is especially attractive since each cubic meter of wood can store half tonne of carbon [ 67 ]. Can we make buildings that work like trees and cities like forests? New cities will exploit new materials that will deliver greater functionality. For example nano-materials already offer opportunities for advances in sensors [ 68 ] and smart polymers [ 69 ]. However, it is just as important that future cities are constructed from materials that are completely recyclable and sustainable [ 70 ].

Where virgin feedstock is required it must be taken from renewable sources, which in many instances will be biomass-based [ 71 ]. For health and safety reasons manufacturing processes are currently located at distances from major conurbations. In the future processes are required that are low hazard and can be integrated into cities, close to workers homes. The newly emergent disciplines of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering are addressing the development of future manufacturing industry [ 72 ].

With buildings being responsible for almost half of all energy consumption and carbon emissions in Europe, new build properties are becoming much more energy efficient and their environmental footprint is being reduced [ 73 , 74 ]. EPBD is not limited to new buildings, but also covers retrofit of existing buildings because these constitute the majority. Accordingly, building materials are in the spotlight as they have a large influence on building energy consumption, carbon emissions, urban warming and comfort level.

Green building

Solid wood has been used as a building material for thousands of years, appreciated for being a lightweight, easy reusable and naturally regrown resource See: Fig. Recently a 30 storey tower, has been designed by Michael Green for Vancouver, Canada. Once built, it will be the tallest wooden construction, overtaking its competitors Forte Building, Melbourne and Stadthaus, London [ 78 ]. Legend - Wood is the only material with a negative CO 2 balance; each cubic metre of wood sequestrates on average 0.

Building with wood could play a vital role in reducing air pollution and global warming. Being a natural material it will not produce any waste and can be recycled. Wood can also be an energy source for future cities. Since timber is one of the few materials that has the capacity to store carbon in large quantities over a long period of time, some of the historically negative environmental impact of urban development and construction could be avoided.

As seen in Fig. In the last decade this technology has been used in the building industry to improve the structural, mechanical, hygienic, aesthetic and energy-related properties of building materials. Nanomaterials can be either added to the building materials or used as coatings. For instance applying nano scale coatings of titanium dioxide breaks down the dirt as and provides a self-cleaning effect when it is applied to windows, frame, glazing or roof tiles [ 81 , 82 ].

According to WHO 50 percent of the 7 bn global population is currently living in cities requiring a land area for farming equivalent to half of South America to produce their food [ 83 ]. But the problem of feeding the inhabitants in future cities may be less severe than we imagine. Historically, some cities at least integrated agriculture into their structure… Ankor Wat and Tenochtitian were mentioned above. During WW1 and WW2 the gardens and spare ground within British and German cities were turned over to the growing vegetables.

Even Einstein cultivated an allotment in WW1, although he was reprimanded for it being untidy. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in , Cuba lost its supplies of fertilizers and agrichemicals precipitating a crisis in food production. To survive, Cubans turned to intensive urban agriculture to augment their food supplies, an activity which continues to this day.

Ironically, when people are restricted to a diet of smaller amounts of freshly grown local food less in quantity than previously, their general level of health improves, an effect clearly evident in both s Britain and s Cuba. In a recent paper Thebo et al. The detailed analysis is summarised in Fig. Percent of urban area classified as a irrigated cropland, b rainfed cropland by country. Legend Proportion of irrigated cropland tend to be higher in regions having larger urban extend area used for irrigated cropland.

However proportion of rainfed cropland is more dependent on regional climate patterns. Martellozzo et al. But the urban area available and suitable for urban agriculture varies considerably depending upon the nature of the agriculture performed. They reluctantly conclude that the space required is regrettably the highest where need is greatest, i. They note that smaller urban areas offer the most potential as regards physical space [ 87 ]. In the developed world urban food growing is becoming popular perhaps for three reasons: firstly by the middle classes the appreciation that urban food cultivation can re-establish the link between food production and consumption, especially for children, encouraging them to adopt a more healthy diet; to supply free, fresh food for those in poverty and perhaps already relying upon food banks; and ironically for high end restaurants.

One example of such community organisations world-wide is York Edible [ 88 ] in the city of York, UK. To reduce their environmental impact future urban dwellers will increasingly grow food within, or at least in the immediate hinterlands, of their cities to avoid the CO 2 emissions associated with food transportation especially over transcontinental distances [ 89 ]. It is estimated that each 1 Calorie of consumed food uses currently 10 Calories of oil [ 90 — 92 ].

Although one dedicated vertical farm could feed up to 50, people [ 96 ], it is still likely that it will be beneficial for all buildings in future to have space reserved for food production. With the recent developments in photovoltaic PV technology it will be also possible to design vertical farms self-sufficient and completely sustainable. The primary energy consumption of vertical farms is for lighting creating mimic sunlight and water pumping for irrigation.

Table 2. Optimisation model for the vertical farm. Adapted from [ 97 ]. In March , the world largest vertical farm was opened in Michigan USA with 17 million plants in plant racks using LED light to mimic sunlight [ 98 , 99 ]. The American National League of Cities is promoting urban agriculture [ ] as a part of its remit to make cities more sustainable. The most ambitious schemes for vertical farms will take a long time to realise, if ever.

But some more modest examples already exist, for example in Singapore [ , ], Sky Greens has constructed a four storey building using traditional growing systems comprising soil based potted plants on a series of conveyor belts which migrate the plants near the windows maybe once or twice an hour so that every plant gets same amount of sunlight during the day. The technology increases food production by a factor of ten compared to that of traditional farming on an equal land area [ ]. The system basically consists of looping towers that could float in local harbours, providing new space for year-round crops.

The concept is inspired in part by floating fish farms that have been in use locally since the s [ ]. The flip side of producing and consuming food is that it creates human waste that must be treated to avoid pollution. This especially applies to uncooked foods such as salads. Progressive build-up of toxic, heavy metals in the soil and thus plants is also a long term problem. But merely treating sewage and discharging the resulting effluent to rivers or the sea loses valuable nutrients, notably phosphorus, and also nitrogen and potassium, which have to be replaced from unsustainable sources.

The first European plant has recently been installed in Slough UK to treat water from a local industrial estate. Although Crystal Green is presently sold for conventional agriculture, technology of this type will be essential for sustainable urban agriculture.

Energy input, required to operate the process, can potentially be obtained from renewable sources, especially solar [ ]. Adapted from [ ]. Legend Advanced water treatment systems for clean water production and advanced systems for gasification of solid waste for energy generation could allow considerable amount of water and energy savings. These could be reused for domestic needs and urban farming for food production. To overcome rising traffic problems, cities should be compactly structured with improved accessibility, and have a well-designed transport network.

In future cities effective transportation will play a key role. Managing urban areas is therefore one of the most important development challenges of the twenty-first century. The built environment is a key element in urban living. Significant investments in infrastructure and further development must be made to accommodate the increasing number of people moving to cities, thereby increasing the pressure on available resources and waste generated.

Cities also face a huge energetic refurbishment task. These transformations of cities at the same time offer new opportunities: energetic refurbishment could bring multiple benefits to the citizens, and smart material loops can make the circular economy a reality.

The design of and the material used for buildings also have a bearing on other important aspects of sustainability and urban life. They affect factors such as health, thermal comfort, acoustic performance and fire resilience. Cities have the power to act and make changes happen within their boundaries. Sustainable Cities - Authenticity, Ambition and Dream.

With around 1. Managing the built environment is the key to securing a sustainable future.

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  • A key step to the sustainable design of buildings is to reduce the amount of energy needed in buildings to keep a comfortable indoor temperature throughout the entire year. Requiring deconstruction, selective demolition, sorting, increasing demand for recycled products and developing digital platforms for this will bring the circular economy in the built environment to the next level.

    Many large cities host challenging neighbourhoods that are often characterised by multiple social problems, inadequate living conditions and bad reputations. These problems often reinforce each other in a vicious circle, causing a negative trend for the area. Time has changed and so has our demand from the built environment. Most of these buildings are in dire need of an upgrade—to lower their energy consumption and improve thermal comfort and the health conditions of the people living in them, as well as to improve aesthetics of the neighbourhood. Urban regeneration is important because we need to ensure that our cities, living spaces and our working spaces are fit for the future and enable the citizens to live a sustainable lifestyle.

    Urban regeneration may be one of the main tasks for our societies to tackle, but it also provides an opportunity to create high-quality, affordable and sustainable buildings if we manage to upscale and replicate the lessons learned from the many pilot cases around the world. Cities also face new risks due to climate change causing more extreme weather conditions.

    A higher frequency of disasters like flooding, hurricanes and fires poses new challenges to cities. Cities should be resilient to these risks too, preventing severe human, social and economic consequences. A resilient city will recover more easily after a disaster. This chapter describes the results of various studies and publications on the role of buildings in cities to meet the challenges described above. Section 2 explains the results of a recent European study on the challenges and opportunities of energy renovation in a city context, linking it to urban regeneration.

    Section 3 goes into sustainable buildings and the challenges and opportunities for cities to get the built environment to become more circular, more resource-efficient and less wasteful. It provides an overview of available studies based on desk research. Section 4 gives an introduction in generic terms on the theme of resilient buildings and the contribution of buildings to a more resilient city. The results of the study and subsequent use of its results in a paper from Copenhagen Economics [ 5 ] are described later. Many large cities host run-down or challenging neighbourhoods, often characterised by multiple social problems, inadequate living conditions and bad reputations.

    The challenge to revitalise these areas is amplified by the fact that these neighbourhoods are often physically and socially detached from the rest of the city. During the s and s, there was a huge need for dwellings—resulting in most constructions being built quickly and on the idea of equality. Most of these buildings are now in dire need of an upgrade to lower their energy consumption and improve their thermal comfort and the health conditions of the people living in them, as well as to upgrade the whole neighbourhood that they are part of through the improvement of their aesthetic quality and that of the urban spaces.

    Urban regeneration deserves additional attention as cities need to be transformed into living spaces and working spaces in a sustainable manner. Often, challenged urban areas especially need attention in creating resilient buildings as the combination of high-rise buildings and dense urban areas poses a higher risk for the built environment in case of fire or natural disasters. An upgraded building stock will also enable and induce the citizens to live a more sustainable lifestyle. Many case projects around the world have shown that a comprehensive strategy comprising both physical and social initiatives can transform whole areas into attractive and liveable spaces as well as turn around the negative trend experienced in these neighbourhoods.

    Upscaling energy renovation of run-down or challenged urban areas is a key element, which can, if combined with other initiatives, not only improve the quality of life and enable citizens to live a sustainable lifestyle but also provide an opportunity to reduce social and health problems in society. Upscaling energy renovation should at the same time focus on creating new business models out of the challenges—focusing on the need for managing resources in the urban environment in a better way. The key elements in achieving successful urban regeneration summarised later are the result of a review of successful cases combined with an interactive dialogue with leading experts in the field facilitated by ROCKWOOL and BPIE in A well-adjusted combination of social and physical measures needs to be considered—which also requires an early collaboration between multiple actors with different expertise.

    The involvement and empowerment of the people living in the area are crucial. Engaging residents in the renovation process, e. Key success factors which were identified for the building renovation projects were: A detailed assessment of renovation alternatives found that a deep renovation would be the cheapest option over a year period. Improving the aesthetic quality of the areas combined with the use of long-lasting materials is cheaper in the long run and can attract new investments and new residents to the areas. Doing so can also be a tool to reduce crime and improve quality of life in the area as neighbourhoods that are in a poor state are perceived to be uncared for—resulting in the likelihood of crime going unchallenged [ 5 ].

    Building owners see an increased value of their properties while reducing operational and maintenance costs [ 5 ]. One of the key learnings from the many existing urban regeneration projects is that people in general like their homes, want to be informed and involved in large-scale renovation projects and prefer to be given the opportunity to take individual choices.

    Urban regeneration is not the same as gentrification. It is, therefore, important to make sure the residents are involved and empowered in the regeneration process. While many of the run-down or challenged areas would benefit from hosting a more mixed population, the means to achieve this cannot be to squeeze out certain groups. A successful urban regeneration process can therefore lift a whole neighbourhood including the people in it.

    A successful urban regeneration strategy cannot be fulfilled without really knowing the needs of the residents. A bottom-up approach where residents are involved can uncover new innovative solutions while giving the residents a sense of ownership of the process, thus increasing their willingness to participate. In other words, an urban regeneration strategy must build on the existing culture rather than building something new. Large-scale renovation projects can be tailored to the existing culture, e. Look beyond the near-term period. A long-term plan for the neighbourhood will increase the chances of a successful regeneration process.

    Furthermore, the multiple benefits of deep renovation should be valued and monetized. Research from Eurofound [ 6 ] shows that inadequate housing is linked with numerous societal costs ranging from health care expenses, higher policing and emergency costs to poor academic performance. Public authorities ought to incorporate these costs and benefits in their cost—benefit analysis. A balanced urban regeneration process needs to combine both physical and social measures in a harmonised manner. Physical and social measures are not two separate entities but are highly interlinked, as a new home is commonly associated to new beginnings.

    The physical transformation of buildings should be long-lasting.

    It is evident that deep renovations using high-quality materials, combining the energy upgrade with an architectural upgrade, are the cheapest solution in the long run. In addition, maintenance and administration costs are reduced as well. Past experience has shown that renovation projects that were quickly done using cheap materials had a short lifespan—thus requiring renovation again.

    In contrast, high-quality and durable materials guarantee that renovated buildings continue to look nice for many decades. The authorities have been successful in driving transformation through public-private partnerships , in which they safeguard the social aspects. Another key success factor is the breaking down of silos within the public governance, for example, by setting up a task group with various departments energy, climate, social, budget, etc.

    Scaling up deep renovation requires more collaboration between various stakeholders, assembling different skills and expertise. The buildings built during the s and s are especially suited to a more industrialised renovation approach , which could reduce the time spent on site and cost. New business models one-stop shops and technologies should be supported and further explored.

    It is evident that extensive experience exists from individual case studies and within individual stakeholders. The existing experience must be scaled up—following the success factors from existing urban regeneration projects. Cities should be encouraged to develop their own urban regeneration path and to take responsibility for facilitating an early engagement with stakeholders covering all needed competences in a project.

    The benefits of energy renovation in urban regeneration are not limited to energy savings alone. It is broadly recognised to also benefit people and the environment. Good indoor climate, thermal comfort, acoustic performance and daylight, for example, improve the health and wellbeing of inhabitants and positively affect the productivity in schools, hospitals and of workers in general [ 5 ].

    Taking a life-cycle approach when considering the materials used in buildings can reduce the environmental impact of the buildings in a city. Moreover, valuing the potential for today and the future creates better economic value. Not surprisingly, there is clear trend towards a more sustainable design and renovation of buildings.

    Urban centres are particularly impacted by waste from construction and demolition activities CDW. Through a parallel study, questions are raised about how the yi bu yi jing and promenade in two cases have been conceived and realised with particular focus on movement, discovery and scenery, and how to interpret the two cases which expressed identical aspirations with regards to spatial strategies, organisation and experience. The thesis studies ways in which chosen examples of gardens in Suzhou and villas in France have been laid out to facilitate experience that both belongs to and exceeds the framework for dwelling which can be identified in other periods and places.

    These examples and analyses open further questions related to concepts of dwelling in traditional China and twentieth-century Europe which the thesis seeks to examine about the theme of spatial strolling. The study draws on architectural history and theory, philosophy, art and aesthetics as means to understand and critically engage with the influences that have informed the chosen case studies. The thesis aims to discover the underlying dynamics and possibilities for the purpose of identifying strategies for dwelling and the design of living spaces applicable in the contemporary age.

    Findings generated from this project are expected to inform academic research into digital design toolmaking as well as in architectural design practice, both informing and offering insights into an emerging industrial specialism. Research on the typological evolution of mass housing in Suzhou Industrial Park, from the s. The Suzhou Industrial Park SIP district has been developed China and Singapore since , adopting the Singaporean town planning system and urban model from the beginning.

    Nonetheless, the housing units and communities in SIP are highly different from the ones in Singapore. This project investigates the house types of SIP to provide insight into housing reform. To achieve this, the research investigates the typological evolution of mass housing in SIP from the s by considering selected mass housing projects within certain periods, and by studying the mechanisms for defining housing types in the various social, historical and political contexts in SIP.

    Advanced demand control ventilation strategies to save building energy in office building accommodating the various outdoor air quality. Due to the increase in the pace of life, people, and especially office workers, spend most of their time indoors. In order to maintain good IAQ, mechanical ventilation systems MVs are widely deployed in office buildings. One strategy is to adjust air flow rates according to the number and distribution of occupants, using CO2-based VCS. Placemaking in Contemporary China: Rail Cities. It has enabled the country to stitch together and connect the vast resources of China, uniting and strengthening the nation.

    As China continues its march into the future, there is a growing internal concern of its loss of identity and heritage, both nationally and regionally. The importance of the rail is an undisputable element within the development of cities and regions, but their success as gateways of regional and municipal expression and culture could be enhanced through function, experience, and representation.

    This research looks at the concepts of Place Making and its connotations and meaning within the Chinese vernacular both through history and different contemporary methodologies. You have Javascript disabled. Some features of this site will not work for you. Please enable Javascript for a better experience.

    CV: Juintow Lin | FoxLin Architects

    Chen Xiaohan Mapping Architectural Criticism in China Since the early s, there has been a renewed interest in Chinese architectural criticism. Email: Xiaohan. Chen02 xjtlu. Email: G.

    Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design
    Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design
    Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design
    Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design
    Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design Sustainable urban housing in China : principles and case studies for low-energy design

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