For example, an adoption of tough sanctions will make it difficult for companies to enter the e-commerce market while lenient sanctions will allow ease of companies. As such, the future trends between GCC countries and the Western countries will be independent of these sanctions Krings, et al. These countries need to make rational conclusions in coming up with effective sanctions. The rate of growth of the number of internet users in the Arab countries has been rapid — A significant portion of the e-commerce market in the Middle East comprises people in the 30—34 year age group.
E-commerce has become an important tool for small and large businesses worldwide, not only to sell to customers, but also to engage them. Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in the mix of e-commerce, this is also commonly called mobile commerce, or m-commerce. For traditional businesses, one research stated that information technology and cross-border e-commerce is a good opportunity for the rapid development and growth of enterprises.
Many companies have invested enormous volume of investment in mobile applications. The DeLone and McLean Model stated that three perspectives contribute to a successful e-business: information system quality, service quality and users' satisfaction. Modern 3D graphics technologies, such as Facebook 3D Posts , are considered by some social media marketers and advertisers as a preferable way to promote consumer goods than static photos, and some brands like Sony are already paving the way for augmented reality commerce.
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Wayfair now lets you inspect a 3D version of its furniture in a home setting before buying. Logistics in e-commerce mainly concerns fulfillment. Online markets and retailers have to find the best possible way to fill orders and deliver products. Small companies usually control their own logistic operation because they do not have the ability to hire an outside company. Most large companies hire a fulfillment service that takes care of a company's logistic needs. Contrary to common misconception , there are significant barriers to entry in e-commerce. E-commerce markets are growing at noticeable rates.
In , retail e-commerce sales worldwide amounted to 2.
Brick and mortar retailers are struggling because of online retailer's ability to offer lower prices and higher efficiency. Many larger retailers are able to maintain a presence offline and online by linking physical and online offerings. E-commerce allows customers to overcome geographical barriers and allows them to purchase products anytime and from anywhere. Online and traditional markets have different strategies for conducting business. Traditional retailers offer fewer assortment of products because of shelf space where, online retailers often hold no inventory but send customer orders directly to the manufacture.
The pricing strategies are also different for traditional and online retailers. Traditional retailers base their prices on store traffic and the cost to keep inventory. Online retailers base prices on the speed of delivery. There are two ways for marketers to conduct business through e-commerce: fully online or online along with a brick and mortar store. Online marketers can offer lower prices, greater product selection, and high efficiency rates.
Many customers prefer online markets if the products can be delivered quickly at relatively low price. However, online retailers cannot offer the physical experience that traditional retailers can. It can be difficult to judge the quality of a product without the physical experience, which may cause customers to experience product or seller uncertainty. Another issue regarding the online market is concerns about the security of online transactions. Many customers remain loyal to well-known retailers because of this issue.
Security is a primary problem for e-commerce in developed and developing countries.
E-commerce security is protecting business' websites and costumers from unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction. The type of threats include: malicious codes, unwanted programs ad ware , spyware , phishing , hacking , and cyber vandalism. E-commerce websites use different tools to avert security threats. These tools include firewalls , encryption software , digital certificates, and passwords. For a long time, companies had been troubled by the gap between the benefits which supply chain technology has and the solutions to deliver those benefits.
However, the emergence of e-commerce has provided a more practical and effective way of delivering the benefits of the new supply chain technologies. E-commerce has the capability to integrate all inter-company and intra-company functions, meaning that the three flows physical flow, financial flow and information flow of the supply chain could be also affected by e-commerce. The affections on physical flows improved the way of product and inventory movement level for companies.
For the information flows, e-commerce optimised the capacity of information processing than companies used to have, and for the financial flows, e-commerce allows companies to have more efficient payment and settlement solutions. In addition, e-commerce has a more sophisticated level of impact on supply chains: Firstly, the performance gap will be eliminated since companies can identify gaps between different levels of supply chains by electronic means of solutions; Secondly, as a result of e-commerce emergence, new capabilities such implementing ERP systems, like SAP ERP , Xero , or Megaventory , have helped companies to manage operations with customers and suppliers.
Yet these new capabilities are still not fully exploited. Thirdly, technology companies would keep investing on new e-commerce software solutions as they are expecting investment return. Fourthly, e-commerce would help to solve many aspects of issues that companies may feel difficult to cope with, such as political barriers or cross-country changes.
Finally, e-commerce provides companies a more efficient and effective way to collaborate with each other within the supply chain. E-commerce helps create new job opportunities due to information related services, software app and digital products. It also causes job losses. The areas with the greatest predicted job-loss are retail, postal, and travel agencies. The development of e-commerce will create jobs that require highly skilled workers to manage large amounts of information, customer demands, and production processes.
In contrast, people with poor technical skills cannot enjoy the wages welfare. On the other hand, because e-commerce requires sufficient stocks that could be delivered to customers in time, the warehouse becomes an important element. Warehouse needs more staff to manage, supervise and organize, thus the condition of warehouse environment will be concerned by employees. E-commerce brings convenience for customers as they do not have to leave home and only need to browse website online, especially for buying the products which are not sold in nearby shops.
Consumers also gain power through online shopping. They are able to research products and compare prices among retailers. Also, online shopping often provides sales promotion or discounts code, thus it is more price effective for customers. Customers can also review and track the order history online.
E-commerce technologies cut transaction costs by allowing both manufactures and consumers to skip through the intermediaries. This is achieved through by extending the search area best price deals and by group purchase. The success of e-commerce in urban and regional levels depend on how the local firms and consumers have adopted to e-commerce. However, e-commerce lacks human interaction for customers, especially who prefer face-to-face connection.
Customers are also concerned with the security of online transactions and tend to remain loyal to well-known retailers. This process is inconvenient as customers need to pack and post the goods. If the products are expensive, large or fragile, it refers to safety issues. In , E-commerce generated 1. Only 35 percent of North American cardboard manufacturing capacity is from recycled content.
The recycling rate in Europe is 80 percent and Asia is 93 percent.
Amazon, the largest user of boxes , has a strategy to cut back on packing material and has reduced packaging material used by 19 percent by weight since Amazon is requiring retailers to manufacture their product packaging in a way that doesn't require additional shipping packaging.
Amazon also has an person team researching ways to reduce and improve their packaging and shipping materials. E-commerce has been cited as a major force for the failure of major U. Many companies have turned to sales promotions and increased digital efforts to lure shoppers while shutting down brick-and-mortar locations. E-commerce has grown in importance as companies have adopted pure-click and brick-and-click channel systems. We can distinguish pure-click and brick-and-click channel system adopted by companies.
E-commerce may take place on retailers' Web sites or mobile apps , or those of e-commerce marketplaces such as on Amazon , or Tmall from AliBaba. Those channels may also be supported by conversational commerce , e. Conversational commerce may also be standalone such as live chat or chatbots on messaging apps  and via voice assistants. The contemporary e-commerce trend recommends companies to shift the traditional business model where focus on "standardized products, homogeneous market and long product life cycle" to the new business model where focus on "varied and customized products".
E-commerce requires the company to have the ability to satisfy multiple needs of different customers and provide them with wider range of products. With more choices of products, the information of products for customers to select and meet their needs become crucial. In order to address the mass customization principle to the company, the use of recommender system is suggested. This system helps recommend the proper products to the customers and helps customers make the decision during the purchasing process.
The recommender system could be operated through the top sellers on the website, the demographics of customers or the consumers' buying behavior. However, there are 3 main ways of recommendations: recommending products to customers directly, providing detailed products' information and showing other buyers' opinions or critiques.
It is benefit for consumer experience without physical shopping. In general, recommender system is used to contact customers online and assist finding the right products they want effectively and directly. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of business industry usually conducted over the internet.
Conversational commerce : e-commerce via chat Digital Wallet Document automation in supply chain and logistics Electronic tickets Enterprise content management Group buying Instant messaging Newsgroups Online banking Online office suites Online shopping and order tracking Pretail Print on demand Shopping cart software Social networking Teleconferencing Virtual assistant artificial intelligence Domestic and international payment systems. Main article: Supply chain management. Alternative payments Comparison of free software e-commerce web application frameworks Comparison of shopping cart software Comparison of payment systems Customer intelligence Digital economy E-commerce credit card payment system Electronic bill payment Electronic money Non-store retailing Paid content Payments as a service Types of e-commerce Timeline of e-commerce South Dakota v.
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The Balance. Contributions in this area have included:. A major area of concern during the digital era is the stultifying effect of outdated intellectual property laws and practices, and of dinosaur publishing companies desperately trying to sustain outmoded practices and business models. Impediments to the implementation of EDI have been examined in detail in a series of documents, including academic papers and consultancy reports for various agencies of Australian governments.
Generic factors affecting progress in e-commerce as a whole have been addressed in the following papers:. A significant number of papers were written concerning the precursors to the Internet era of electronic commerce. Subsequently, many papers have been written on particular forms of eCommerce. This section brings them together. Here are papers that review the period A number of surveys have been undertaken of EDI practices in Australia, particularly within Australian government, together with two in Austria:.
Various aspects of the history and technology of eCommerce over the World Wide Web have been addressed, in a succession of papers:. A general overview is provided by a segment of a final-year undergraduate course on e-Trading A series of papers has examined particular instances of electronically supported markets, particularly auctions:. A considerable amount of work has been performed in this area. The published materials are in two segments:. A series of works relates to the critical question as to how the transfer of value is to be achieved over the information infrastructure.
Basic treatment is in:.
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A series of works arose from projects undertaken in the period to in relation to payment applications of smart cards. These were variously consultancy assignments and academic research projects. It was necessary to re-visit the area due to the cavalier manner in which the payments industry suddenly shifted to unauthenticated credit and even debit payments in Smart cards are capable of being designed to participate in multiple schemes rather than just one.
A variety of publications have addressed this area, arising primarily from consultancy assignments but also from academic research projects and public advocacy work.
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Reports are also provided on the Code of Practice of a key industry association, the Asia-Pacific Smart Card Forum, to address those issues:. Cryptography delivers the basis both for the security of data and value, and means to support some forms of authentication. Far from being of assistance to the progress of e-business, infrastructure to support digital signatures has been so badly handled that it is instead a serious impediment.
Various flavours of outsourcing, 'right-sourcing' and re- insourcing have been in vogue during the period A 'new' phase then emerged, dressed in the marketing term 'cloud computing'. To underline its close similarity to predecessors, I prefer to call it 'cloudsourcing'.
The key difference is that the cheapest form of processor is once again sufficiently powerful to run more than one application at a time — and hence the term 'server' has reverted to its original use to refer to software rather than hardware — and the applications that organisations depend can now in principle at least be run on any compatible machine, anywhere — for which the marketing buzz-phrase 'server virtualisation' has been created.
There are potential benefits; and a lot of risks to be managed. Social networking services emerged in , and were variously accompanied and followed by participative tools and micro-blogging. The term 'social media' gradually emerged to encompass all of the new field. And the business imperative of 'monetising' market-share progressively saw the designs become more exploitative.
My early contributions, , considered social media mainly from the consumer and privacy perspectives. Here is the series of papers that examined the eBusiness aspects:. Automated data capture, changed economics of data storage and destruction, and increasing 'datafication' have given rise to vast quantities of data. The 'data mining' tag has given way to 'data analytics'. Some old messages have been lost and need to be re-discovered, and some new challenges need to be confronted:.
A reference document provides definitions of key terms currently in use. A significant number of papers address the following segments.
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