The Romantic heroes, the artistic heroes, are the first artistic creators to have not just admirers but fans; they have a following, they have a cult. I suppose there had been a cult of Michelangelo but with the Romantics there is a cult of Byron, a cult of Beethoven, a cult of Wagner. The relationship between public and the artist is quasi-religious. It begins to take off with Garrick, partly in furtherance of his own career, who launches this idolisation of Shakespeare. Once you begin to have the whole Enlightenment critique of the established church and the cult of the saints, you see the emergence of a cult of artists instead.
JB: One of the respects in which I very much agreed with the argument of your book was the assessment of when Romanticism begins. Academics are always interested in when movements end and with questions of origin: when can you say Romanticism begins? There have been lots of different arguments about that. TB: Yes, just so. So not surprisingly they reach out redoubled with enthusiasm for some kind of collective haven within which they can seek refuge.
The nation, especially for the Germans, and to a lesser extent the Italians later, presented itself as an obvious place in which to find a collective warmth. Clearly you can trace the line from Romantic nationalism through to the Nazis. They have this in common that they are detached, they are deeply ironic, and so consequently they are prone to making self-disparaging remarks in which they distance themselves from what they identify clearly as a Romantic culture. So Heine wrote quite a lengthy piece warning the French in particular — he was living in Paris as an exile at the time — against the dangers of German Romanticism, warning them that out of all that stuff about witches and hobgoblins and the night and the darkness pretty ugly things could come.
As he writes in the Confessions and elsewhere, the scales suddenly fell from his eyes and he realised that what his enlightened philosophe colleagues thought, that reason was leading to the emancipation of humankind, was doing the reverse: it was leading to a new kind of tyranny.
Garlands of flowers were being heaped on chains. In terms of that idea of a radical critique of the Enlightenment, and of the sense that modern notions of sexual freedom can be traced back to Romanticism, de Sade is an interesting, almost deeply influential figure. TB: Well, mea culpa , I certainly should have done. Should it ever go into another edition I will make sure there is a paragraph or two, complete with some spicy quotes from the divine Marquis. I wonder how influential he was though, actually.
I think he becomes very influential once his works were freely available in the 20th century and, so I understand, very influential on psychologists and psychiatrists. But do you think he was actually influential on the Romantics? JB: The influence was more of an idea of what he had written and what he had done and what he had stood for than actually a direct reading of the texts. Justine did circulate but his influence was more at the level of a sort of perception of what he represented and what he stood for.
The key area where that influence comes through is actually in the gothic novel. A figure like Matthew Lewis, who wrote The Monk , the bestselling, most scandalous of the gothic novels, saw himself almost as an English de Sade. A strand that says inventing morality for ourselves is deeply wrong. So how does that work? Romanticism seems to embrace both extremes, the Christian and the satanic. TB: In many respects the Romantic revolution was a religious revival. Incidentally, I scribbled a note right at the beginning of this conversation when we were talking about where Romanticism contributes to present-day culture, that one of these axioms of value in modern culture is integrity, originality and spontaneity.
All these things come out of Romanticism.
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That certainly takes us back to the notion of religious experience. If a religious experience, as the Romantics saw it, and as their religious precursors saw it, or an ethical act is to have any value, it must come from the inside, must be self-determined and cannot be performed because the Ten Commandments tell you to.
When looking for the origins of a German proto-Romantic experience it comes from Pietism, from that movement of the late 17th century with its emphasis on the need for an inner light, a personal conversion experience which has nothing to do with institutions and dogma. There are equivalents, of course, in every other part of Europe: certain forms of Jansenism in the Catholic Church, with Methodism and certain elements of Nonconformity in the English-speaking world, the Great Awakening for example.
I think that religion is right in there. JB: The fault line then comes with the question: to what do you attribute a quasi-religious feeling? Clearly a reply. Again, you have the passionate feelings aroused by the French Revolution, then by Napoleon, and then again, a new wave in which catches up people like Wagner for example, but many others such as Heine who, we mentioned, see Romanticism as essentially reactionary. How does that work?
One can overdo these contrasts.
Can you really say that Goethe believed in God? Perhaps a kind of pantheism. Wordsworth surely is a Christian pantheist. Given that the official ideology and culture of the revolution was classicism, and then that is continued — or perhaps perverted — by Napoleon, if you were against the revolution and particularly if you were opposed to Napoleon, then there was a natural tendency, compulsion even, to adopt the alternative: Bourbon restoration, Bourbon royalism.
You can see that in virtually all the early French Romantics, the most important of them of course being Chateaubriand, who wrote The Genius of Christianity among other things. But once the Bourbon restoration has taken place in and decisively in , you can almost see someone like Victor Hugo beginning to shift from Right to Left.
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They start off as conservative, clerical royalists and then as the awful nature of Louis XVIII and more especially of his brother Charles IX after becomes apparent you can see them shifting Left. So by the late s Victor Hugo is a fully paid-up member of the liberal opposition. France is an interesting example of a swing from Right to Left.
I would regard the key figures in the lateth-century development of Romanticism in England as being John Ruskin, William Morris and A. Obviously there are exceptions like Hazlitt and so on. So by the time you get to the Regency period in England and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey have all moved to the Right and Coleridge goes on to become one of the most formative conservative thinkers in a book like On the Constitution of Church and State. TB: The war is very important.
Anyone who has any illusions about the French Revolution bringing a new world of humanity and brotherly love were certainly very rapidly disillusioned by the events of the s so the war has a big impact. JB: And then by the time that the Pope crowns Napoleon as Emperor, Wordsworth says this is like a dog returning to its vomit. TB: Yes. He can be seen in a way as a weather vane of attitudes towards politics.
Not just in the world of music but also in the German-speaking world Beethoven was regarded as the great mould-breaker. The real turning point for him was the Eroica. So it could be argued that the Eroica is the most revolutionary work that had been created in music until that point.
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He was deeply disillusioned by Bonaparte turning out to be just another power-crazed politician. Certainly he could be identified as a man of the Left in his social and political attitudes, critical as he was of the Habsburg regime. DJ: Wagner was a very good critic. He saw Beethoven, as it were, as his own precursor. DJ: To what extent do you think that the younger generation today can easily connect with these Romantic aesthetics? Are we going through a Romantic phase ourselves now? There seemed to be a continuity back with Romanticism but it seems to me the mode of so many younger thinking people today is irony.
TB: My experience is rather different from yours, Jonathan. Wagner would have been thrilled to have learned that the myth of The Ring , for example, had applications just as valid in the late 20th or early 21st centuries as in the middle of the 19th century. Not least because in his music and his texts Wagner had so much to say about the way in which the modern world in its rationalism had explained, understood and then exploited nature.
That, in part, is what The Ring of the Nibelung is all about: how the understanding, explanation and discovery of scientific laws leads to the exploitation and rape of nature. From Bach's Goldberg to…. Beethoven Essays. Wagner and Beethoven: Richard…. Beethoven: Missa Solemnis. Astrology of the Famed:…. Beethoven - Violin Concerto in….
New Grove Beethoven. Related Searches. An die ferne Geliebte To the Distant Beloved ,. View Product. Andante Con Variazioni: Part. Andante Con Variazioni,Ludwig van Beethoven. This wonderful collection includes 9 well-known pieces for piano by Ludwig van Beethoven. Interesting biographical Interesting biographical information on Beethoven's eventful life is included. Beethoven -- First Book for Pianists. This diverse collection contains dances including the Menuet in G , the Sonatina in G, and Each piece is presented in its original form with Beethoven's markings clearly indicated.
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Three portraits of Beethoven are provided, and Dr. Palmer's background This useful series, edited by Willard A. Palmer and others, features the easiest works of Palmer and others, features the easiest works of Beethoven. All selections are presented in their original, un-simplified form and are organized in progressive order of difficulty.
It allows students to begin playing this
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